Ember Octane is here! A lot has changed since Ember 3.14, including these Guides. Read more in the Ember Blog.

Edit Page

Overview


A Service is an Ember object that lives for the duration of the application, and can be made available in different parts of your application.

Services are useful for features that require shared state or persistent connections. Example uses of services might include:

  • User/session authentication.
  • Geolocation.
  • WebSockets.
  • Server-sent events or notifications.
  • Server-backed API calls that may not fit Ember Data.
  • Third-party APIs.
  • Logging.

Defining Services

Services can be generated using Ember CLI's service generator. For example, the following command will create the ShoppingCart service:

ember generate service shopping-cart

Services must extend the Service base class:

import Service from '@ember/service';

export default class ShoppingCartService extends Service {
}

Like any Ember object, a service is initialized and can have properties and methods of its own. Below, the shopping cart service manages an items array that represents the items currently in the shopping cart.

import { A } from '@ember/array';
import Service from '@ember/service';

export default class ShoppingCartService extends Service {
  items = A([]);

  add(item) {
    this.items.pushObject(item);
  }

  remove(item) {
    this.items.removeObject(item);
  }

  empty() {
    this.items.clear();
  }
}

Accessing Services

To access a service, you can inject it in any container-resolved object such as a component or another service using the inject decorator from the @ember/service module. Standard practice is to alias inject as service to make it more clear that it is performing service injection. There are two ways to use this decorator. You can either invoke it with no arguments, or you can pass it the registered name of the service. When no arguments are passed, the service is loaded based on the name of the decorated property. You can load the shopping cart service with no arguments like below.

import Component from '@glimmer/component';
import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';

export default class CartContentsComponent extends Component {
  // Will load the service defined in: app/services/shopping-cart.js
  @service shoppingCart;
}

This injects the shopping cart service into the component and makes it available as the shoppingCart property.

Another way to inject a service is to provide the name of the service as an argument to the decorator.

import Component from '@glimmer/component';
import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';

export default class CartContentsComponent extends Component {
  // Will load the service defined in: app/services/shopping-cart.js
  @service('shopping-cart') cart;
}

This injects the shopping cart service into the component and makes it available as the cart property.

Sometimes a service may or may not exist, like when an initializer conditionally registers a service. Since normal injection will throw an error if the service doesn't exist, you must look up the service using Ember's getOwner instead.

import Component from '@glimmer/component';
import { getOwner } from '@ember/application';

export default class CartContentsComponent extends Component {
  // Will load the service defined in: app/services/shopping-cart.js
  get cart() {
    return getOwner(this).lookup('service:shopping-cart');
  }
}

Injected properties are lazy loaded; meaning the service will not be instantiated until the property is explicitly called.

Once loaded, a service will persist until the application exits.

Below we add a remove action to the cart-contents component.

import Component from '@glimmer/component';
import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';
import { action } from '@ember/object';

export default class CartContentsComponent extends Component {
  @service('shopping-cart') cart;

  @action
  remove(item) {
    this.cart.remove(item);
  }
}

Once injected into a component, a service can also be used in the template. Note cart being used below to get data from the cart.

<ul>
  {{#each this.cart.items as |item|}}
    <li>
      {{item.name}}
      <button {{on "click" (fn this.remove item)}}>Remove</button>
    </li>
  {{/each}}
</ul>